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Definitions, Acronyms List and Glossary

GLORIA: Definitions, Acronyms List and Glossary #


  • Automated scheduled telescope (Robot) (+) : A telescope that performs pre-programmed observations without immediate help of a remote observer (e.g. avoiding an astronomer moving of the mount by hand).

  • Remotely operated (remote) telescope Robot (+) : A telescope system that performs remote observations following the request of an observer.

  • Autonomous Robot (observatory) (+) : A telescope that performs various remote observations and is able to adapt itself to changes during  task execution without any kind of human assistance (eg. weather monitoring; the system must not endanger humans !). 

(+) (from A.J. Castro-Tirado, ,  “Robotic Autonomous Observatories:  A historical perspective”, in Robotic Astronomy 2009, Proc. of the First Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories, eds.: A. J. Castro-Tirado, J. Bloom, L. Hanlon, and T. Kotani, Torremolinos (Málaga), Oct 2009) 


  • Admin user

See user.

  • ADU

Acronym of Analog-to-digital unit. A number representing a CCD's output. The relationship between the ADUs generated and the number of electrons acquired on the CCD is defined by the system gain. Intensities given in ADUs provide a convenient method for comparing images and data generated by different cameras. Also referred to as count and digital number.

  • AP

Acronym for Advisory Panel. Part of GLORIA Steering Board (SB) which will be made up of representatives from each GLORIA partner.


It is a many-to-many and language independent architecture, supported by most astronomical devices which connect to Windows computer. Official site:

  • Camera

Part of a telescope in charge of the image capture.

  • Captcha

It is a means of automatically generating challenge to ensure that the response is generated by a human, not by a machine.

  • CCD

Acronym for charge coupled device. It is an analog electronic device that can be used as the image sensor in place of film in an electronic camera or optical devices like microscopes or telescopes.

  • Citizen scientist

See user -> regular user.

  • CMS

Acronym for Content Management System. Software for sharing internal documents.

  • CQ

Acronym for Contribution Equity. The contribution equity measures the contribution of a person to the community. This value is calculated from the information equity of the contributed assets.

  • Credit

Amount of glorious that a user has and that can be used for purchasing RT observing time according with its RT price.

  • Dome

Closed structure where the telescope is placed.

  • DoW

Acronym for Document of Work. Technical annex of the consortium agreement signed by all GLORIA partners and the European Commission. The Dow is the business plan of GLORIA project.

  • EAP

Acronym for External Advisory Panel. The EAP will be made up by members of association in the different countries of GLORIA and advice the GLORIA Steering Board (SB).

  • FITS

Acronym for Flexible Image Transport System.It is a digital file format used to store, transmit, and manipulate scientific and other images. FITS is the most commonly used digital file format in astronomy.

  • Focuser

It is the focusing mechanism of a telescope.

  • Gamma correction

It is the name of a nonlinear operation used to code and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.

  • GS

Acronym for GLORIA System.


Acronym for GLobal Robotic telescope Intelligent Array for e-science.

  • GLORIA community

Refers to all the community of GLORIA users or citizen scientists.

  • GLORIA partners

Institutions that participate in GLORIA project, which are the following.

  • GLORIA Project

FP7 European project for developing GLORIA under contract nº 283783. It is a three years project that started the October 1st of 2011 and will end in September 30th of 2014.

  • GLORIA Repository

List of links of databases or storage for obtaining images to be used in image library.

  • GLORIA Resource or Resource

Anything obtained from GLORIA that satisfies user needs and wants. Typical resources are RT, RTDB, etc. Some GLORIA resources are for free, but others have a price and users must expend their credit in order to use them.

  • GLORIA System

Web application software which runs in the GLORIA server, available in the URL

  • GLORIA System architecture

Set of pieces of software which deals with users and the robotic telescopes.

  • GLORIA Users

See user.

  • GLORIA Website

URL where all the GLORIA comunity can access to the GLORIA social network. From this site all the resources will be available, like the RT, experiments and all content available. This URL is currently

  • Glorius

Currency unit which allows an user to purchase RT observing time. RT or other resources will have an associated RT price. Each user will have a credit.

  • GUI

Acronym for Graphical User Interface.

  • Guess user

See user.

  • HLP

Acronym for High Level Protocol. Standard protocol defined for communication among the different RTS and GLORIA System.

  • HL protocol

See HLP.

  • INDI

Acronym for Instrument Neutral Distributed Interface. It is a Distributed Control System protocol to enable control, data acquisition and exchange among hardware devices and software front ends, with particular focus on astronomical instrumentation.

  • Intranet

Private websites (only used by Intranet users).

  • Intranet user

See user.

  • IQ

Acronym for Information Equity. This equity shows the importance and quality (measured by popularity) of the information contained in an asset. It is calculated through social activities related to the information.

  • Karma

It is a index to measure the participation of a user or telescope a resource (i.e. robotic telescope) in GLORIA. karma in an index of quality associated to each user and resource in GLORIA, like a robotic telescope, an astronomical data base, etc. A high value in the karma means a high quality of the resource or high reputation in case of users. The karma is calculated automatically by GLORIA System everyday as a function of the votes of the users applying specific policies.

  • LLP

Acronym for Low Level Protocol. Protocol used in the low level layers of the protocol stack.

  • Meta information

It  is information on the information held within a data set.

  • Mount

It  is a mechanical structure which support the telescope and allow for accurate pointing of it.

  • Owner user

See user.

  • P2P

Acronym for "Peer-to-Peer. In a P2P network, the "peers" are computer systems from users which are connected to each other via the Internet. Files can be shared directly between systems on the network without the need of a central server. In other words, each computer on a P2P network becomes a file server as well as a client.

  • Pan movement

It refers to the horizontal movement or rotation of a atill or video camera.

  • PC

Acronym for Project Coordinator. The PC is responsible for the overal project organization, planning and reporting.

  • PEQ

Acronym for Personal Equity. The ultimate result, that describes a person's achievements and participation in the community. This value is the sum of a person's contribution and participation equities.

  • PMT

Acronym for Project Management Team. The PMT is delegated by the SB and responsible for monitoring and coordinating the project on a daily basis, assuring the quality of the results, and preparing progress reports. The PMT is delegated by the PM and will meet regularly every three months via phone call or video conferences.

  • Policy

Reconfigurable set of rules applied in order to take some decision automatically by GLORIA System. This rules will be set by the SB (Steering Board) and redesigned periodically with the aim to foster user’s participation focused to  increasing the productivity of science.

  • User admission policy. It defines the rules for the admission of a new user.
  • User terms and conditions policy. Set of rules the user must accept, otherwise he/she can not create an account in GLORIA
  • RT admission policy. It defines the rules for the admission a new RT in GLORIA
  • RT terms and conditions policy. Set of rules the regular user must accept for becoming a Owner user and register he/she RT in GLORIA.
  • User Karma calculation policy. Set of rules defined for calculating the karma of any kind of user.
  • RT karma calculation policy. Set of rules defined for calculating the karma of a RT. 
  • User credit calculation policy. Set of rules defined for calculating the user’s credit
  • RT price calculation policy. Set of rules defined for calculating the RT price.
  • PQ

Acronym for Participation Equity. This equity measures the active participation of a person. It is calculated by measuring the feedback a person has provided to other community contributions (assets). Viewing a contribution can be translated as feedback as well.

  • Price

See RT price.

  • PS

Acronym for Project Scientist. The PS is the responsible for the overall scientific delivery, on base to planning and reporting, taking care of the activities listed.

  • Regular user

See user.

  • Resource

See GLORIA Resource.

  • RT

Acronym Robotic Telescope. Facility with all the items necessary for housing a teleoperated robotic telescope. RT refers from a human point of view while RTS refers from a computer point of view.

  • RT architecture

The Robotic Telescope Architecture is set of software components and the relationships among all of them designed towards  controlling a robotic telescope.

  • RT karma

RT Karma and the demand of the RT. There could be different prices depending on the date of the year (demand).

  • RT observing time

Robotic Telescope Observing Time. The user will be able to make reservation of certain number of hours of RT Observing time.

  • RT price

Price of the observing hour of the telescope. Price will be calculated as a function of the RT Karma and the demand of the RT. There could be different prices depending on the date of the year (demand).

  • RTC

Acronym for Robotic Telescope Controller. Software component that controls the different devices of a Robotic Telescope. RTC communicates with RTI at one side and with different RTDs to the other side. RTC has also schedule functionality. 

  • RTD

Acronym for Robotic Telescope Device. Software component that controls and monitorizes any physical device in a Robotic Telescope. There will be several RTD, one for each devices. The RTDs could run all in one computer or can be distributed in different computers. 

  • RTDB

Acronym for Robotic Telescope Data Base. Software component that manages the local data base of the Robotic Telescope. There could be several RTDBs in one RT and they could be running in one computer or distributed in several computers.

  • RTML

Acronym for Remote Telescope Marckup Lenguage. Itisan XML dialect meant to enable the transparent use of remote and/or robotic telescopes

  • RTS

Acronym for Robotic Telescope System. Set of devices, computers and instrumentation which can be used with Astronomy observation. RTS refers from a computer point of view, while RT refers from a human point of view.

  • RTS2

Acronym for Remote Telescope System 2nd  version.It is an integrated open source package for remote observatory control under the Linux operating system.

  • RTI

Acronym for Robotic Telescope Interface. Software component which runs in RTS and is dedicated to the communication with GLORIA System. RTI will be generated automatically from compiling the HLP defined in a protocol description language.

  • RTOS

Robotic Telescope Operative System.

  • SB

Acronym GLORIA Steering board (see Steering Board).

  • Steering Board (SB)

It is the main management and decision-making body of GLORIA and is comprised of the PC (project coordinator), the PS (project scientists) and the AP (advisory panel). The EAP has a member of each partner of GLORIA. The External Advisory Panel participates in the decision-taking of the SB with voice but no vote.

  • Surveillance camera

Video camera used to monitorized the state of all the devices inside the dome.

  • TBC

Acronym for “To Be Completed”.

  • Telescope ID

Unique Telescope Identifier in the GLORIA System. It is set when the telescope is registered.

  • Tilt movement

It refers to the vertical movement or rotation of a atill or video camera.

  • Time slot

Time interval of using a telescope, defined to specify concrete goals, such as an exchange.

  • Tool

Software module that brings specific functionality, in terms of application, to certain users. e. g. Exchange calendar.

  • User

Person who enters in GLORIA website.

  • Admin user: User who has the privileges in order to manage and configure GLORIA web site.
  • Guest user: Any person who see the GLORIA website without logging in.
  • Intranet user: Any authorized user to share internal documents and communication with other authorized users.
  • Owner user: A owner user who owns one or more than one telescope.
  • Regular user: Citizen scientist. They will have different permission depending on their karma.
  • User ID

Unique User Identifier in the GLORIA System. It is set when the user is registered.

  • VO

Acronym for Virtual Observatory.

  • Volunteer P2P storage system

Part of volunteer computing technique.  Distributed storage device which uses the hard disc capacity donated by volunteer citizens through the Internet.

  • Vote

It is the act of voting, which is the method in GLORIA for making decisions automatically based in different policies and taking into account the interest of GLORIA community. The votes could be performed by GLORIA users, applying the voting policy, on different issues called  VOB (Votable OBject), which could be content VOB or resource VOB.

  • The content VOB is the content added by an user, like images uploaded to the image repository, comments added by an user, reports made by users, etc
  • The resource VOB are the different systems available in GLORIA by user, like RT, RTDB, and even different hardware components available in a RT, and also the sky quality, weather quality, seeing quality.   There could be interdependencies among resource VOBs i.e. a RT has different resources as dome, mount, RTDB, weather quality, etc.
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